David Reigned Over All Israel
Comments for Study 4
2 Samuel 8:1-10:19
Memory Verse: 8:15
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I. The Lord Gave Victory (8:1-18)
>1. Who does verses 1-8 and 13-14 say David defeated?
* 2 Samuel 8:1-8 "In the course of time, David defeated the Philistines and subdued them, and he took Metheg Ammah from the control of the Philistines. David also defeated the Moabites. He made them lie down on the ground and measured them off with a length of cord. Every two lengths of them were put to death, and the third length was allowed to live. So the Moabites became subject to David and brought tribute. Moreover, David fought Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah, when he went to restore his control along the Euphrates River. David captured a thousand of his chariots, seven thousand charioteers and twenty thousand foot soldiers. He hamstrung all but a hundred of the chariot horses. When the Arameans of Damascus came to help Hadadezer king of Zobah, David struck down twenty-two thousand of them. He put garrisons in the Aramean kingdom of Damascus, and the Arameans became subject to him and brought tribute. The Lord gave David victory wherever he went. David took the gold shields that belonged to the officers of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem. From Tebah and Berothai, towns that belonged to Hadadezer, King David took a great quantity of bronze."
* 2 Samuel 8:13-14 "And David became famous after he returned from striking down eighteen thousand Edomites in the Valley of Salt. He put garrisons throughout Edom, and all the Edomites became subject to David. The Lord gave David victory wherever he went."
* "In the course of time" -These victories are believed to happen before chapter seven. Rather than being in chronological order 2 Samuel is in topical order.
* "Philistines" -The Philistines are the most commonly mentioned enemy of Israel. Their thin territory was on the south eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea (the Great Sea).
* "Metheg Ammah" -In Hebrew this phrase is of uncertain meaning though "bridle of the mother" is an often accepted translation. KJV, NIV, NRSV take it as a place name since 1 Chron. 18:1 equate it with Gath. NAS translated the phrase as the chief city.” The parallel in 1 Chronicles 18:1 has “Gath and its villages.” Other suggestions for translation include: bridle of the water channel,” "reins of the forearm,” control of the mother city,” take the common land,” or wrest supremacy from.”
* "Moabites" -Descendants of Lot. David's parents were placed there while Saul was chasing David.
* "the third length was allowed to live." -David reduced the fighting numbers so that their ability to fight and shed blood against Israel was greatly diminished. Actually David was being kinder than all the other invaders in the Middle East. The others completely wiped out their enemies. Also, by leaving some people in the surrounding areas David left a buffer to any other invading armies and stop wild animals from greatly increasing to the point of being a threat to Israel. (Deut. 7:22)
* "Zobah" -Zobah, a small city state, seems to be roughly where Syria later became a nation, north-east of Damascus. In David's time this city state was the leading Syrian power before the rise of Damascus.
* "Euphrates River" -The Euphrates River is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia. Originating in modern eastern Turkey, the Euphrates flows through modern Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the modern Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf. David's influence went up to the mid-section of the river. Just opposite of the river was the area that Haran was located. Haran was the city that Terah, Abraham's father died and was buried and the homeland of Rebekah, Isaac's wife and Rachel and Leah, Jacob's wives.
* "Damascus" -Damascus is commonly known in modern Syria as Al Sham, and as the City of Jasmine. It is the capital and the second largest city in modern Syria. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III in the 15th century B.C. Damascus was part of the ancient province of Amurru in the Hyksos Kingdom, from 1720 to 1570 BC. Some of the earliest Egyptian records are from the 1350 BC Amarna letters, when Damascus-(called Dimasqu) was ruled by king Biryawaza. The Damascus region, as well as the rest of Syria, became a battleground circa 1260 B.C., between the Hittites from the north and the Egyptians from the south, ending with a signed treaty between Hattusili and Ramsis II where the former handed over control of the Damascus area to Ramesses II in 1259 B.C. Damascus is mentioned in Genesis 14:15 as existing at the time of the War of the Kings. According to the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in his twenty-one volume Antiquities of the Jews, Damascus (along with Trachonitis), was founded by Uz, the son of Aram. Elsewhere,[where?] he stated: "Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says thus: "Abraham reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans: but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abraham is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abraham."
* "Aramean kingdom" -Damascus is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Arameans (also spelled Aramaeans), Semitic people from Mesopotamia in the 11th century B.C. By the start of the 1st millennium B.C., several Aramaic kingdoms were formed, as Arameans abandoned their nomadic lifestyle and formed federated tribal states. One of these kingdoms was Aram-Damascus, centered on its capital Damascus. The Arameans entered the city without battle. The Aramaeans initially turned Damascus into an outpost of a loose federation of Aramean tribes, known as Aram-Zobah. The city would gain prominence in southern Syria when Ezron, the claimant to Aram-Zobah's throne who was denied kingship of the federation, fled Beqaa and captured Damascus by force in 965 BC. Ezron overthrew the city's tribal governor and founded the independent entity of Aram-Damascus. As this new state expanded south, it prevented the Kingdom of Israel from spreading north and the two kingdoms soon clashed. Under Ezron's grandson, Ben-Hadad I (880–841 BC), and his successor Hazael, Damascus annexed Bashan (modern-day Hauran region), and went on the offensive with Israel. The new Syrian city-state faced a strong opponent from the east as Assyria rose to power. Ben-Hadad strengthened Damascus to the point that Asa, king of Judah (910-869 B.C.), paid him tribute to attack Baasha, king of Israel, and relieve pressure on Judah (1 Kings 15:16-23). This gave Damascus reason to interfere repeatedly in politics in Palestine. This conflict continued until the early 8th century B.C. when Ben-Hadad II was captured by Israel after unsuccessfully besieging Samaria. As a result, he granted Israel trading rights in Damascus.
* "Tebah" -Tebah means slaughter. Tebah is perhaps associated with tubihi, a site somewhere between Damascus and Kadesh.
* "Berothai" -Berothai means wells.” City in Syria from which David took brass as tribute after he defeated King Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:8). The parallel passage (1 Chron. 18:8) reads Chun or Cun and says Solomon used the brass for Temple vessels. The exact relationship of Berothah, Berothai, and Cun cannot be determined. The three are usually identified as the same place, but some Bible students dispute this. At the date when Chronicles was written, Cun may have been better known than nearby Berothai. (Holman Bible Dictionary)
* "David became famous" -The Lord had given David success and thus had made David famous as he had promised.
* "Edomites in the Valley of Salt" -The Edomites lived between the Red Sea and the Salt Sea. They are Semitic and semi-nomads because of scare grassing lands. Thus the boundaries of Edom would have been rather ill-defined.
* Psalm 60 was written after defeating the Edomites.
>Who surrendered without a fight? (9-10)
* 2 Samuel 8:9-10 "When Tou king of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of Hadadezer, he sent his son Joram to King David to greet him and congratulate him on his victory in battle over Hadadezer, who had been at war with Tou. Joram brought with him articles of silver and gold and bronze."
* "Hamath" -City-state located in the valley of the Orontes River, roughly 120 miles north of Damascus. Excavation indicates this mound was occupied as early as Neolithic times. Hieroglyphic inscriptions first discovered by J. L. Burckhardt in 1810 attest early Hittite influence in Hamath. Throughout much of its existence, Hamath functioned as the capital of an independent kingdom. The southern boundary of Hamath served as the northern boundary of Israel during the reigns of Solomon (1 Kings 8:65; and 2 Chron. 8:4) and Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14:25,28). (Holman Bible Dictionary)
* In short, David extended Israel's borders to the west, north, east, and south. David's conquests into Solomon's reign was the largest experienced by Israel. With the exception of the Philistines, the Phoenicians (Tyre and Sidon), and a few Amalekites and scattered city states the Lord used David to conquer almost all of the promised land which extends from the Euphrates River in the north to the Egypt River in the south (Some say this is the Nile, others the Wade River.). The final and complete fulfillment of the promised land will come in the Millennium.
>What reasons does the writer emphasize for David's success? (6b, 14b)
* "The Lord gave David victory wherever he went."
* "The Lord gave David victory wherever he went" -Repeated twice in this chapter. Often we think it is us who has successes. Rather it is God who does it through us. Last night in a men's Bible study class a man stated that people outside of Christ's body can do good things. I reminded him of John 3:20-21 which states clearly that all good deeds are only done by God's work. It says, "Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light, so that it may be seen plainly that what he has done has been done through God." He believed that there is some good in man. However the Lord says, "every inclination of man's heart is evil from childhood." (Genesis 8:21; See also Ecc. 9:3; Luke 16:15)
* The fulfillment of God's promises to Abraham and Israel were not easily kept. Israel needed to fight against the enemy. They were the instrument of the Lord's fulfillment. They participated because they were willing to be used.
>2. How does David's treatment of the spoils of war different from the way in which he dealt with the gods of the Philistines captured in battle? (11-12; and 1 Chron. 14:8-12)
* 2 Samuel 8:11-12 "King David dedicated these articles to the Lord, as he had done with the silver and gold from all the nations he had subdued: Edom and Moab, the Ammonites and the Philistines, and Amalek. He also dedicated the plunder taken from Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah."
* 1 Chronicles 14:8-12 "When the Philistines heard that David had been anointed king over all Israel, they went up in full force to search for him, but David heard about it and went out to meet them. Now the Philistines had come and raided the Valley of Rephaim; so David inquired of God: "Shall I go and attack the Philistines? Will you hand them over to me?" The Lord answered him, "Go, I will hand them over to you." So David and his men went up to Baal Perazim, and there he defeated them. He said, "As waters break out, God has broken out against my enemies by my hand." So that place was called Baal Perazim. The Philistines had abandoned their gods there, and David gave orders to burn them in the fire."
* David kept the spoils of war and brought them to Jerusalem. He completely destroyed the idols even though they may have been worth a lot.
>Is there a reason for this? (Deut. 7:5)
* Deuteronomy 7:5-6 "This is what you are to do to them: Break down their altars, smash their sacred stones, cut down their Asherah poles and burn their idols in the fire. For you are a people holy to the LORD your God. The LORD your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his people, his treasured possession."
* David obeyed the Lord. He feared the Lord more than loved riches. Jesus taught, "No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and Money." (Matthew 6:24)
>What kind of leader was David?
* 2 Samuel 8:15 "David reigned over all Israel, doing what was just and right for all his people."
* "David reigned over all Israel" -Saul, David and Solomon were to only three kings of Israel to do this for extended periods of time. (Solomon's son, Rehoboam reigned all Israel for a very short time until Jeroboam I of Israel rebelled against him successfully; 2 Chron. 10.)
* "doing" -How many couch Christians call Jesus Lord and yet do not do what he says? How can anyone listen to a man who only gives God lip service?
* "what was just and right" -God established a theocratic rule in Israel. So the kings were to do what the Lord commands, not what they believed was right. The truth is not subjective. The truth is apart of the character of God. Is your life ruled by God and his ways, or your ways?
* "for all his people" -We should do what is right and just to all. Many leaders, spiritual or social impart justice and kindness only to those who will give it back to them or who are their family and friends. Jesus taught, "When you give a luncheon or dinner, do not invite your friends, your brothers or relatives, or your rich neighbors; if you do, they may invite you back and so you will be repaid. But when you give a banquet, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed. Although they cannot repay you, you will be repaid at the resurrection of the righteous." (Luke 14:12-14)
* See 1 Sam. 8:3, 12:3, 10:25; 1 Kings 2:3-4)
>Who did he share his leadership with?
* 2 Samuel 8:16-18 "Joab son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was recorder; Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Seraiah was secretary; Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Kerethites and Pelethites; and David's sons were royal advisers."
* "Joab son of Zeruiah" -Joab was the oldest son of Zeruiah, the sister of David (2 Sam. 2:13; and 1 Chron. 2:16). He was loyal to David and ruthless in achieving his objectives.
* "Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud" -Recorder in Hebrew terms root meaning is remember.” He seems to be an official historical writer for David and Solomon. (1 Kings 4:3) Some say hi was a kind of chancellor or chief administrator of royal affairs which included royal chronicles and annals. Nothing else is known about this man although there was always a recorder in the is the courts of Israel and Judah.
* "Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelech son of Abiathar were priests" -A possibility exists that David divided the priest's duties between these two priests if one served as priest under Saul's reign. Ahimelech and Abiathar (names must be transposed here) are well known from David's past exile time. (1 Sam. 22:20) Zadok seems to be younger and replaced Ahimelech when Ahimelech died. Zadok's loyalty to David left him priest to Solomon too.
* "Seraiah was secretary" -He probably functioned as a modern secretary of state does.
* "Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over the Kerethites and Pelethites" -Kerethites (aka Cherethites, Cherethim) were a people who lived south of or with the Philistines (1 Sam. 30:14). They were probably related to or paid soldiers for the Philistines. Crete may have been their original home. David used some of these soldiers as a personal bodyguard (2 Sam. 8:18). Ezekiel pronounced judgment on them (Ezek. 25:16), as did Zephaniah (Zeph. 2:5). Pelethites (possible alternative to Philistines) like the Kerethites were considered "Sea Peoples" as were the Philistines. They also were foreign mercenaries King David employed as body guards and special forces. They must have come under his rule while with the Philistines. Solomon used them to ride all of Israel of David's enemies. (Could these be a foreshadow of the church, made up of Gentiles who are called kings and priests in Jesus' Millennium kingdom?)
* "David's sons were royal advisers" -The word is similar to "priests" in Hebrew. Though the NIV uses the 1 Chron. 18:18 rendering here. Some have suggested that the word here, similar to priest, could mean that since David conquered Melchizedek's Salem (now Jerusalem) he assumed Melchizedek's king-priest joint title. Since Melchizedek lived hundreds of years before David this conclusion is a stretch, though fitting since David was a Christ-like king.
* All these people were faithful to David before he was king of Israel. They received an increase importance and duty when David kingdom was established.
>How does this foreshadow the Kingdom of God?
* David's kingdom was very organized so that he could obey the direction of the Lord for the king to protect Israel and drive out all the foreign people from the promised land as was given through Moses.
* David's just and righteous rule is a foreshadow of Jesus' Millennium kingdom.
* David's kingdom quickly established peace throughout Israel as will happen when Jesus comes. Jesus will destroy all of those who set up themselves as enemies of God.
* David reward those who had been faithful to him before he became king. Jesus will reward those who are faithful to him in this life when Jesus sets up his earthly Millennium kingdom. They will be given places of honor and responsibility.
* Many verses in Scripture speak of those in Jesus' kingdom receiving a reward for the righteous acts they commit during their life in this age. These rewards are not given in this life and age as some believe. Yet, it is true that living the way God intends is better than living against his ways. The fact that righteous living now is better for us than living in sin is just as true as the fact that God will reward works of righteousness performed in this age in the next age; a time that is soon to happen. Our reward will be in the resurrected life and age to come.
We should never confuse the fact that salvation from sin, death, and punishment for sins is not a reward, it is a gift given freely by God through faith. Ephesians 2:8-10 states, “For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God-- not by works, so that no one can boast. For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.”
These two facts are true; salvation is a gift and God gives rewards to his bride if they do righteous acts.
* God also established two other feasts in the seventh month of the Jewish calendar. Yom Kippur is on the 10th day. Shmini Atzeret is on the 15th day. They also mark events of the Millennium.
Yom Kippur means Day of Atonement. The Day of Atonement and The Feast of Trumpets are connected. They are called the High Holy Days. The Feast of Trumpets is the first of the High Holidays, followed by ten holy days, and ends on the Day of Atonement.
The High Holidays are also called Yamim Noraim, meaning "Days of Awe"; and Asseret Yemei Teshuva, meaning “Ten Days of Repentance.” The High Holidays are specifically set aside to focus on the wonder and fear of the Lord and on repentance. (Ex. 30:10, Lev. 16:1-34, 23:27-32, 25:1-55, Num. 29:7-11)
In Ezekiel 40:1 there is a general reference that the High Holidays are the "beginning of the year.” Exodus 23:16 and 34:22 also seem to indicate this. Why call the seventh of twelve months the first day of the year? The end of the Feast of Trumpets and the beginning of the Day of Atonement is the first day of the year because it marks the beginning of Jesus' reign on earth.
Yom means "day" in Hebrew. When the first English translators came upon the word kippur they discovered there was no English equivalent. So they created the word “atonement” by joining “at”, one, and “met”. The Day of Atonement marks the time when Jesus' bride and those who made it through the seven years of wrath will be gathered before Jesus' throne in Jerusalem at the great banquet feast of the Lamb. There will be great celebration and joy for several days.
Kippur comes from a root Hebrew word that means "to cover or hide"; a secondary meaning is "to obliterate (sin)" and hence "to expiate". There is a link to the Hebrew word kapporet meaning the mercy seat. 2 Corinthians 5:10 and Romans 14:10 tell us that believers will be brought into examination before the Son of God, the King and their Bridegroom. The New Testament uses the Greek word Bema for this judgment seat. Bema means a raised platform which had a seat on it. Sale-Harrison wrote in the book The Judgment Seat of Christ, “In the Grecian games in Athens, the old arena contained a raised platform on which the president or umpire of the arena sat. From here he rewarded all the contestants; and here he rewarded all winners. It was never used as a judicial bench.” Paul used the Athens' games as an example of his goal to gain a prize and a crown. (1 Cor. 9:24-27, and 2 Tim. 2:5, 4:6-8, Phil. 4:1, and 1 Th. 2:19)
Thus, Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) is when each of Jesus' loved ones meets him face-to-face. We will see him with our own eyes and he will judge our deeds done in this life. As we approach his radiant glory, glory of staggering proportions, his light will burn away all that is not pleasing. As we approach him all that will be left in us is the good deeds we did in this life.
The Day of Atonement is described by Paul in his first letter to the Corinthians. “For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ. If any man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, his work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man's work. If what he has built survives, he will receive his reward. If it is burned up, he will suffer loss; he himself will be saved, but only as one escaping through the flames.” (1 Cor. 3:11-15)
What does gold, silver and costly stones represent? What will survive? Later in his first letter to the Corinthians Paul tells us, “And now these remain faith, hope and love.” (1 Cor. 13:13a)
When Jesus loved ones come before their King and Bridegroom at the Bema seat his glory will burn away all that was not done with faith, hope, and love. All that will remain is what was done with faith in Jesus, hope in his kingdom, and love for him and others. This day marks the day when Jesus will give rewards to his bride according to what they did during their first lives. (Rev. 22:12, 5:10, 4:2, 1:5-6, and 2 Cor. 5:10, and 1 Cor. 6:2, Dan. 7:22, 12:1-13, Luke 19:11-27, Matt. 25:14-30, Jam. 1:12, and 1 Pet. 5:4, etc.)
* The above is taken from The Believer's Future - Hope That Inspires.
II. David and Mephibosheth (9:1-13)
>4. Why do you think David wanted to show kindness for the survivors of the house of Saul? (1; 1 Sam. 20:12-17; 23:14-18)
* 2 Samuel 9:1 "David asked, 'Is there anyone still left of the house of Saul to whom I can show kindness for Jonathan's sake?'"
* 1 Samuel 20:12-17 "Then Jonathan said to David: "By the Lord, the God of Israel, I will surely sound out my father by this time the day after tomorrow! If he is favorably disposed toward you, will I not send you word and let you know? But if my father is inclined to harm you, may the Lord deal with me, be it ever so severely, if I do not let you know and send you away safely. May the Lord be with you as he has been with my father. But show me unfailing kindness like that of the Lord as long as I live, so that I may not be killed, and do not ever cut off your kindness from my family--not even when the Lord has cut off every one of David's enemies from the face of the earth." So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying, "May the Lord call David's enemies to account." And Jonathan had David reaffirm his oath out of love for him, because he loved him as he loved himself."
* 1 Samuel 23:14-18 "David stayed in the desert strongholds and in the hills of the Desert of Ziph. Day after day Saul searched for him, but God did not give David into his hands. While David was at Horesh in the Desert of Ziph, he learned that Saul had come out to take his life. And Saul's son Jonathan went to David at Horesh and helped him find strength in God. "Don't be afraid," he said. "My father Saul will not lay a hand on you. You will be king over Israel, and I will be second to you. Even my father Saul knows this." The two of them made a covenant before the Lord. Then Jonathan went home, but David remained at Horesh."
* David and Jonathan had made a covenant between each other. Jonathan knew David would become king even though Jonathan was Saul's firstborn. David agreed to show favor to Jonathan's house and keep his descendants alive. David honored this covenant. David was a man of his word. David kept his promises.
* A few years back there was an international movement that was concentrated in North America called "Promise Keepers". Large group of Christian men agree to keep their promises to God, their wives, their children, and their neighbors.
* Matthew 5:33-37 records Jesus teaching, "Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, 'Do not break your oath, but keep the oaths you have made to the Lord.' But I tell you, Do not swear at all: either by heaven, for it is God's throne; or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. Simply let your 'Yes' be 'Yes,' and your 'No,' 'No'; anything beyond this comes from the evil one."
* Some have written that David was here trying to win the minds and hearts of the remaining supporters of Saul. This seems unlikely because as the previous two chapters portray, David did so much for Israel in a just and right way that if there were any who didn't support him over Saul's house by now, they were few in number and political strength and so were unable to gaining anyone on their side to support their will and belief.
* 2 Samuel and 1 Kings chapters 1 and 2 are considered an independent unit of material; the second part of the original collection we now call 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings.
>5. Who was Mephibosheth? (2-6)
* 2 Samuel 9:2-6 "Now there was a servant of Saul's household named Ziba. They called him to appear before David, and the king said to him, "Are you Ziba?" "Your servant," he replied. The king asked, "Is there no one still left of the house of Saul to whom I can show God's kindness?" Ziba answered the king, "There is still a son of Jonathan; he is crippled in both feet." "Where is he?" the king asked. Ziba answered, "He is at the house of Makir son of Ammiel in Lo Debar." So King David had him brought from Lo Debar, from the house of Makir son of Ammiel. When Mephibosheth son of Jonathan, the son of Saul, came to David, he bowed down to pay him honor. David said, "Mephibosheth!" "Your servant," he replied."
* "Mephibosheth son of Jonathan" -Mephibosheth is believed to be originally called "Merib-Baal" (1 Chron. 8:34; 9:40) but was later changed because Baal worship was so horrible. He was Jonathan's only remaining son. He was five years old when his father died. At this time he has a son of his own.
* "Ziba" -Then as now, large homes had servants who were responsible for the upkeep of the estate.
* "I can show God's kindness" -David acknowledged that he was an extension of God's kindness for God is the source of love. David did not claim kindness as his own. Jesus taught, "So you also, when you have done everything you were told to do, should say, 'We are unworthy servants; we have only done our duty.'" (Luke 17:10)
* "Lo Debar" -A town at the far end in Gileadite territory east of the Jordan. He seems to be hiding, afraid possible attack from David.
>How did David show him God's kindness? (7-13)
* 2 Samuel 9:7-13 "Don't be afraid," David said to him, "for I will surely show you kindness for the sake of your father Jonathan. I will restore to you all the land that belonged to your grandfather Saul, and you will always eat at my table." Mephibosheth bowed down and said, "What is your servant, that you should notice a dead dog like me?" Then the king summoned Ziba, Saul's servant, and said to him, "I have given your master's grandson everything that belonged to Saul and his family. You and your sons and your servants are to farm the land for him and bring in the crops, so that your master's grandson may be provided for. And Mephibosheth, grandson of your master, will always eat at my table." (Now Ziba had fifteen sons and twenty servants.) Then Ziba said to the king, "Your servant will do whatever my lord the king commands his servant to do." So Mephibosheth ate at David's table like one of the king's sons. Mephibosheth had a young son named Mica, and all the members of Ziba's household were servants of Mephibosheth. And Mephibosheth lived in Jerusalem, because he always ate at the king's table, and he was crippled in both feet."
* "restore to you all the land that belonged to your grandfather Saul" -Most change in dynasty utterly destroyed the former.
* "you will always eat at my table" -A place of honor. Eating a meal with someone is to claim them as a friend and provide with them all the necessaries of life. Similar to this, the Lord Jesus shares his table with his disciples, giving us what has been called "the Last Supper" even though at one time we belonged to the family that was at war with him. He told us to "Do this in remembrance of me." (Luke 22:14-20)
* David did all he could so Mephibosheth could regain status in the community and nation.
* "Mica" -Mephibosheth having a son makes it so that either this happened several years after David was king in Jerusalem, or the name of his son was added later.
>Do you see any parallel between David's treatment of Mephibosheth and God's grace upon us?
* Jesus does not treat us as our sins deserve. God's grace thru Jesus is great.
* John 1:14 "The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth."
* Colossians 1:21-23 "Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. But now he has reconciled you by Christ's physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation-- if you continue in your faith, established and firm, not moved from the hope held out in the gospel. This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant."
* Ephesians 2:6-10 "And God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, in order that in the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace, expressed in his kindness to us in Christ Jesus. For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God-- not by works, so that no one can boast. For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do."
* Romans 4:16 "Therefore, the promise comes by faith, so that it may be by grace and may be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring--not only to those who are of the law but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham. He is the father of us all."
* 2 Timothy 1:9-10 "(God) who has saved us and called us to a holy life--not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time, but it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel."
* Also, Ephesians 4:32 and Titus 3:3-6.
III. David Defeats the Ammonites (10:1-19)
>6. To whom else did David want to show kindness? (1-2)
* 2 Samuel 10:1-2 "In the course of time, the king of the Ammonites died, and his son Hanun succeeded him as king. David thought, "I will show kindness to Hanun son of Nahash, just as his father showed kindness to me." So David sent a delegation to express his sympathy to Hanun concerning his father. When David's men came to the land of the Ammonites,"
* "Ammonites" -The Ammonites were descendants of Lot and leaved east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea (Salt Sea). The Israelites were not to destroy them when going to the promised land. Eventually they became an enemy of Israel, trying to take parts of the promised land from Israel.
* "to express his sympathy to Hanun concerning his father" -We do not honor the dead by dishonoring their survivors.
* "just as his father showed kindness to me" -Most likely David and the Ammonites former king had a formal treaty for the Ammonites are not mentioned in chapter 8 as going to war against David. David seems to want to confirm the compact that had existed with Nahash's father. If so, David never attacked the Gentiles on his north west and south east.
* The reason why this victory is not included with the others in chapter 8 is because it is a background event to David's sin with Bathsheba. Thus, as mentioned several times before, 2 Samuel is not chronological as it is topical.
* The sinful nature remembers wrong doing much longer than the kindness someone shows. I know of people today who were wronged ten, twenty, thirty and fourty years ago who go around telling as many people as they can about the wrong that others did to them. What do they mean to accomplish by this? God is not like sinful man. He forgives the repentant and remembers sins no more. David reflected God's nature in remembering kindness shown to him and promises made to dead people.
* David had probably gained an alliance during his exile years for Saul had made himself an enemy to David and the Ammonites at that time.
>How was his kindness received?
* 2 Samuel 10:3-5 "the Ammonite nobles said to Hanun their lord, "Do you think David is honoring your father by sending men to you to express sympathy? Hasn't David sent them to you to explore the city and spy it out and overthrow it?" So Hanun seized David's men, shaved off half of each man's beard, cut off their garments in the middle at the buttocks, and sent them away. When David was told about this, he sent messengers to meet the men, for they were greatly humiliated. The king said, "Stay at Jericho till your beards have grown, and then come back."
* "the Ammonite nobles said to Hanun" -Advice from either one or a group is only as good as their relationship with God. If the one or the group does not have a good relationship with God, then the advice will lead to eventual destruction. If the advice is from the Lord, then it is good. Men of God who live in humility and submission to God are more dependable then those who rebel. Even though these men were "noble" they did not give good advice.
* Proverbs 12:5-6 "The plans of the righteous are just, but the advice of the wicked is deceitful. The words of the wicked lie in wait for blood, but the speech of the upright rescues them."
* Proverbs 19:20-21 "Listen to advice and accept instruction, and in the end you will be wise. Many are the plans in a man's heart, but it is the LORD's purpose that prevails."
* "shaved off half of each man's beard" -A great disgrace in those days and even today amongst the Arabs. Many would rather die than have half their beard shaved off. A full beard was a sign of age and thus wisdom and commanded respect. A beard was only shaved to show deep mourning. Shaving half a beard was a great insult.
* "Jericho" -Between Jerusalem and Ammonite territory. Thus, the men could hid the humiliation. David showed them kindness.
* David's kind act was followed with an evil act. Many times in my life I have experienced this. Surely this is more common to everyone than someone showing kindness for kindness shown them. Can we trust such a person. No, yet we are to forgive them. Jesus said, "But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also." (Matthew 5:39) He told us, "But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you." (Matthew 5:44) In David's case those who made themselves his enemy threatened the nation, God's people. It was his job as king to defend the nation God claimed as his own.
* Hanun has lost the objective. At the time he made this bad decision he must have seemed like a wise and humorous man to his peers. Later, his folly was shown. Even if David was spying them out, Hanun's actions were folly.
>7. How did this event spark a way of international proportions?
* 2 Samuel 10:6 "When the Ammonites realized that they had become a stench in David's nostrils, they hired twenty thousand Aramean foot soldiers from Beth Rehob and Zobah, as well as the king of Maacah with a thousand men, and also twelve thousand men from Tob."
* "Beth Rehob" -Beth Rehob means house of the market.” It was a town near where tribe of Dan rebuilt Laish and renamed it Dan (Judg. 18:28) on the northern border of Israel. Rehob was the father of Hadadezer, the Syrian king of Zobah (2 Sam. 8:3). Beth-Rehob may have been their hometown. Apparently Syria still controlled the city. The town lay at the southern foot of Mount Hermon.
* "Maacah"- A Maacah was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:24) who lived near the Euphrates River in Abraham's time. He perhaps gave his name to the Aramean kingdom west of Basham and south-west of Mount Hermon; the residents of this kingdom, the Maachathites were not driven out during the Israelite conquest of Canaan (Josh. 13:13).
* "Tod" -Tod was a Syrian city in southern Hauran to which Jephthah fled from his brothers (Judg. 11:3-5). Tob is perhaps identical with Tabeel (Isa. 7:6). The site is perhaps now et-Taiyibeh about twelve miles (20km) east of Ramoth-gilead near the source of the Yarmuk River.
* With the Ammonites in the south-east and the Aramean in the north-east, they were forcing David to fight on two fronts and cut his forces in half.
* The Lord God was working through the bad advice of foolish nobles for the sake of Israel.
* World wars I and II were started on similar circumstances; a small bad action on one person part leading to many countries fighting. Some "fights" amongst family members and even in congregations have started the same way. We are told, "In your anger do not sin": Do not let the sun go down while you are still angry, and do not give the devil a foothold." (Ephesians 4:26-27)
>To what major victory did this war lead?
* 2 Samuel 10:7-8 "On hearing this, David sent Joab out with the entire army of fighting men. The Ammonites came out and drew up in battle formation at the entrance to their city gate, while the Arameans of Zobah and Rehob and the men of Tob and Maacah were by themselves in the open country."
* Kingdoms to the north-east and south-east were neutralized.
* David's military response here brought victory over Ammon and Syria (2 Sam. 10). However, it also set the stage for David's sinful relationship with Bathsheba.
>8. According to Joab's words, what was the spirit of the Israelites under David? (9-12a)
* 2 Samuel 10:9-12a "Joab saw that there were battle lines in front of him and behind him; so he selected some of the best troops in Israel and deployed them against the Arameans. He put the rest of the men under the command of Abishai his brother and deployed them against the Ammonites. Joab said, "If the Arameans are too strong for me, then you are to come to my rescue; but if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then I will come to rescue you. Be strong and let us fight bravely for our people and the cities of our God."
* "for our people and the cities of our God" -David and his fighting men were selfless, living for the people and living for God.
* Joab strategy was the best given the situation. Joab was loyal, courageous, and capable.
>Who did Joab depend on? (12b)
* 2 Samuel 10:9-12b "The Lord will do what is good in his sight."
* Joab was a man of faith. The Lord gave him strength. He trusted in the Lord even when defeat seem the only outcome. True faith is active when all seems lost.
* Hebrews 11:1 "Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what cannot be seen."
* Isaiah 7:9b "If you do not stand firm in your faith, you will not stand at all."
* Habakkuk 2:4b "the righteous will live by his faith."
>Why was Joab able to defeat superior numbers and superior equipment? (13-16)
* 2 Samuel 10:13-16 "Then Joab and the troops with him advanced to fight the Arameans, and they fled before him. When the Ammonites saw that the Arameans were fleeing, they fled before Abishai and went inside the city. So Joab returned from fighting the Ammonites and came to Jerusalem. After the Arameans saw that they had been routed by Israel, they regrouped. Hadadezer had Arameans brought from beyond the River; they went to Helam, with Shobach the commander of Hadadezer's army leading them."
* God rewards those who live by faith. Ruth 2:12 teaches, "May the LORD repay you for what you have done. May you be richly rewarded by the LORD, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refuge." David himself said, "The LORD rewards every man for his righteousness and faithfulness." (1 Samuel 26:23a)
* Proverbs 22:4 "Humility and the fear of the LORD bring wealth and honor and life."
>9. Why do you think the Arameans and Ammonites did not win in spite of superior numbers and better weapons? (17-19)
* 2 Samuel 10:17-19 "When David was told of this, he gathered all Israel, crossed the Jordan and went to Helam. The Arameans formed their battle lines to meet David and fought against him. But they fled before Israel, and David killed seven hundred of their charioteers and forty thousand of their foot soldiers. He also struck down Shobach the commander of their army, and he died there. When all the kings who were vassals of Hadadezer saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they made peace with the Israelites and became subject to them. So the Arameans were afraid to help the Ammonites anymore."
* As noted earlier David knew that the Lord had done this all for the sake of his people and promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
>10. What can we learn about the power of fear and the blessings of faith in the Lord Jesus? (2 Tim. 1:6-7)
* 2 Timothy 1:6-7 "For this reason I remind you to fan into flame the gift of God, which is in you through the laying on of my hands. For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power, of love and of self-discipline."
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