John 13:1-38 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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Jesus Teaches a New Command
Comments for Study 18

John 13:1-38
Key verse: 13:34


Passion Week Events

* An outline of Jesus' last week before his resurrection is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area.
    Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
    Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
    Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
    Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as their King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
    Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
    Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
    Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
    Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
    Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
    A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
    Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)

* The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. It starting on Thursday twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go through the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucified was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Wave Sheaf, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.

I. Jesus Loved Them to the End (1)

>1. What two things did Jesus know as he and his disciples sat down together to eat the Passover Feast? (1,3)

* "It was just before the Passover Feast. Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and to go the Father. Having loved his own who were in the world, he now showed them the full extent of his love." (1)

* "Jesus knew that the Father had put all things under his power, and that he had come from God and was returning to God." (3)

* This supper, the Last Supper, the Passover marked the end of Jesus' public ministry. It also marked the end of Jesus' training and raising his disciples while in the world. So this time with them was very important to Jesus.

* This could have been in Mark John's house for he was later in the garden.

* "time had come" -Jesus had been talking about this time all along.

>What might an ordinary man have been thinking at such a time?

* About his coming humiliation, suffering, crucifixion and death.

* This would have been a painful moment.

* With what was before him concentrating on God, his Father, and others would have been hard.

* Many want to be alone in a painful time.

>2. What was Jesus thinking about at this serious moment in his life?

* "he now showed them the full extent of his love." (1)

* He was thinking 100% about his disciples; their understanding of him, their faith and their hearts.

* Jesus' teaching here is for those who follow him. Note that only the twelve were in the upper room. And after Judas left Jesus taught more that were only for the believing eleven.

* Jesus only quiet time with his disciples during this week was on the Mount of Olives or on the way back and forth from it. So this was a quiet one-on-twelve time with them.

>Think about the words, 'he now showed them the full extent of his love.' (RSV has"he loved them to the end"; Rev. 1:8; Heb. 13:8) What can we learn here about Jesus?

* Jesus' unchanging love for us is displayed.

* "Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever." (Heb. 13:8)

* "I am the Alpha and the Omega,' says the Lord God, 'who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.'" (Rev. 1:8)

* The NIV note says, "or he loved them to the last."

* His love could have been hampered by the moment.

* Jesus displayed his true shepherd heart, the length, quality, and depth of his love.

* Servitude. (Isa. 53, Rom. 12:1)

* We can express love in a difficult moment.

* Practical teaching others is needed when raising them up to be disciples of Jesus.

II. Jesus Showed an Example of How to Love Others (2-17)

>3. How did Satan attack them on this joyful and precious occasion? (2)

* "The evening meal was being served, and the devil had already prompted Judas Iscariot, son of Simon, to betray Jesus." (2)

* "promoted" -Judas had not fully decided that he did not believe in Jesus until shortly before this. Perhaps at the dinner held in Jesus' honor. (Chapter 12)

* Judas was fully exposed to all of Jesus' teachings and miracles, as the other disciples were. He also had been sent out to teach, even healed people and cast out demons. This did not show his true heart or whether he was saved or not. Paul himself said, "No, I beat my body and make it my slave so that after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified for the prize." (1 Cor. 9:27)

* Judas never believed or accepted Jesus.

* Judas decided to follow the way of the world instead of believing in Jesus. He loved money. (12:6)

* Judas never gave up his own ideas. He complained about wasting perfume on Jesus.

>4. What did Jesus suddenly get up from the table and do?

* "so he got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist. After that, he poured water into a basin and began to wash his disciples' feet, drying them with the towel that was wrapped around him." (4,5)

* Jesus wasn't paralyzed with sentimentality or hatred because he knew and thought of his Father full of love. Jesus had perspective, love, and was committed to serve his disciples to the end.

* There was no table to hide one's feet.

* In those days in that area they wore sandals so the feet often got very dirty and smelly.

* Jesus didn't use his power over them.

* Jesus could have called anyone who rejected him to do this. He could have asked his discipled to do this and they would have.

>Who ordinarily did this?

* A servant.

* If there was no servant people would do it for each other.

* Jesus was a man with hours left. He could have wasted time waiting for the disciples to do something. He didn't. He took action himself, out of love and patience.

* Jesus dressed as a servant.

>Why had none of the disciples done it?

* They had a lack of love and were very selfish.

* Each thought that they were better than the other. Each thought the other should do it.

* They still had a worldly view of power and authority.

* None wanted to be the lowest.

* They weren't concerned for the others, their brothers in Christ. They loved themselves more than each other.

>Why did Jesus do it?

* Jesus wanted to teach the disciples the full extent of his love.

* To teach them about himself and how they should be. (12-14)

>What did he want to teach them about true love?

* True love is practically serving others. When we have a servant heart we can learn love, Jesus' love, true love.

* Humility.

* His love has no limit.

* He cares even for our feet and appearance.

* He wants us to learn and to grow continually.

* He doesn't give up on us.

* Rom. 12:9a, 17-21.

* If someone serves us it is easier to serve them. Yet the disciples acted as if they were against it.

* True love isn't a matter of time.

>5. What happened when Jesus reached Peter?

* "He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, 'Lord, are you going to wash my feet?'" (6)

* Peter was hurt and surprised and humbled.

* Peter had traditional humanistic view of Jesus and authority.

* The other apostles didn't ask questions this. Yet, Peter did. Because Peter responded they learned more of the truth and the spiritual significance behind Jesus' action.

* Peter displayed self righteousness yet he really repented and loved Jesus.

>How did Jesus emphasize the importance of his washing Peter's feet?

* "Jesus replied, 'You do not realize now what I am doing, but later you will understand.' 'No,' said Peter, 'you shall never wash my feet.' Jesus answered, 'Unless I wash you, you have no part with me.'" (7-8)

* There is urgency in Jesus' words.

* Jesus said, "needs only". That's all.

>Why was it so important that Peter accept Jesus' loving service? (8)

* Jesus said, "no part". He was very clear and exact.

* If he did he could have no part with Jesus.

* We must depend on Jesus.

* If water baptism is a necessity to salvation, as some say, they why don't they do this?

* 2 Cor. 5:17.

* 1 John 1:8-10.

* We must acknowledge that we need God's help.

* We must accept Jesus' love unconditionally event though we don't understand everything he does for us. We need to be humble.

* After being washed by Jesus' blood by faith we need to continually come to him for forgiveness because as long as we are in this world we live in a unchanged cursed body that still sins from time to time.

>6. How did Peter respond? (9)

* "'Then, Lord,' Simon Peter replied, 'not just my feet but my hands and my head as well!'" (9)

* Peter thought the more the better.

* Peter had accepted Jesus' words in his heart.

* In his inner heart Peter wanted to be with Jesus.

* Peter was accepted by Jesus even though he made mistakes again and again.

>What was Jesus teaching his disciples about love?

* Love is practically serving other.

* We are not greater than Jesus. (16) So as disciples under Jesus we should do as he did.

>About the joy of serving?

* Jesus said, "you will be blessed if you do them."

* God will bless us.

>How can we follow the example Jesus set?

* "'Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another's feet.'" (14)

* Forgive each other their sins and dirty aspects.

* Don't expect to be served in return.

* Co-working requires love.

* Practically serve others in spite of how they are.

* This serving is special and specific.

* Dirty feet is like dealing with other's sin problems and habits.

* Bear others, especially family, friends and co-workers in the gospel work. Accept and serve them. Help them wash their sins and weaknesses.

* Cover other's shortcomings.

III. Jesus Loved Judas the Betrayer to the End (18-30)

>7. Why did Jesus tell his disciples about the betrayer? (19-21)

* "I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. I tell you the truth, whoever accepts anyone I send accepts me; and whoever accepts me accepts the one who sent me. After he had said this, Jesus was troubled in spirit and testified, 'I tell you the truth, one of you is going to betray me.'" (19-21)

* This quote is from Psalm 41:9.

* When this would happen the disciples should not doubt, wander, but believe that Jesus is the Messiah.

* To help their faith in the future.

* It is important to strengthen and warn others even though they may be proud at the time we tell them.

* Verse 20, accept others.

* This became a problem in Acts 1:12-26.

>How did the disciples respond to this?

* "His disciples stared at one another, at a loss ot know which of them he meant." (22)

>What does this show about them?

* They did not know each other.

* They were very selfish.

* Why was Peter concerned? Perhaps because of what Jesus had just said to him in hearing of the others. He wandered about himself in light of Jesus' words to him.

>8. Why was Jesus so troubled in spirit?

* Jesus had loved Judas Iscariot for around three years and Judas did not repent nor accept him as the true Messiah.

>How did he try to help Judas?

* He did not expose him the whole time and he did not use his name here.

* He shared bread with him.

* He loved him to the end. Jesus washed his feet as the others.

* Jesus kept him as the treasurer the whole time, even though he knew that Judas was stealing and would betray him.

* Judas might have thought he was doing the right thing. By calling him a betrayer, Jesus wanted Judas to see what he was really doing.

>What is the significance of sharing bread?

* Sharing bread symbolized friendship.

* Having a meal is easy with friends, harder with strangers, and hardest with a betrayer.

>What did it mean to give Judas the piece of bread? (Jn. 6:54-55)

* "Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him." (Jn. 6:54-55)

* He gave himself.

* Bread was a symbol of friendship and love, a symbol of his life.

>What is the purpose of Jesus' love?

* To help Judas repent. Later, when Judas remembered Jesus' words here, he could have repented.

* Jesus loves all people unconditionally and faithfully.

>9. What did the way in which Judas went out signify?

* "As soon as Judas had taken the bread, he went out. And it was night." (30)

* He was not of the light. He was under Satan's grip because he did not accept Jesus and God's plan for the Messiah.

* He was fearful.

* "As soon as Judas had taken the bread" -John had pointed out earlier that the Jews did not want to kill Jesus until after the Feasts were over. When Judas realized that Jesus knew what was happening he ran to tell them that their plans had been discovered. In response to this revelation the chief priests and elders acted quickly to arrest Jesus before he slipped away. They changed their plans. Jesus during the Last Supper (Passover) told Judas, "What you are about to do, do quickly." Thus Jesus set into motion his arrest so that his crucifixion would be on the Passover, to fulfill God's word about the Passover Lamb.

>What happened to him? (Mt. 27:1-10)

* He committed suicide.

* When we are in sin we must humbly come to Jesus. Just seeing our state of sinfulness is not enough for salvation. We must ask for and accept forgiveness. We must repent after receiving forgiveness.

>What can we learn from this?

* To accept Jesus' love of forgiveness and repent.

* Just because we are in a Christian group and do things that God wants does not mean that we are of Jesus.

IV. Jesus loved Peter in Spite of His Denial (31-38)

>10. After Judas left, what did Jesus tell his disciples? (31-33)

* "When he was gone, Jesus said, 'Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in him. If God is glorified in him, God will glorify the Son in himself, and will glorify him at once. My children, I will be with you only a little longer. You will look for me, and just as I told the Jews, so I tell you now. Where I am going, you cannot come." (31-33)

* Glorifying God through dealing with betrayal with love and power of God.

* Jesus left Judas go, thus he laid down his life.

* "when he was gone" -Jesus did these things only after Judas left.

* "glory" -used a lot here. Jesus' crucifixion is glory. Our acts that reflect Jesus crucifixion are also glory to God.

>What unique weapon against Satan's attack did he give them? (34)

* "'A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another." (34)

* 1 Cor. 13:1-8a

* Jesus' love is our standard of love.

>How can we prove ourselves as his disciples?

* "'By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another.'" (35)

* Overcome evil with good.

* Only in Jesus can we do this.

>11. What did Jesus know about Peter that he didn't even know about himself?

* "Simon Peter asked him, 'Lord, where are you going?' Jesus replied, 'Where I am going, you cannot follow now, but you will follow later.'" (36)

>How did he help him?

* Jesus told him what Peter what he would do in the future and exactly when it would happen.

* Peter would realize when he denied Jesus that Jesus loved him because he had warned him.

>How was Peter different from Judas?

* He loved Jesus.

* After he denied Jesus he remembered Jesus' words, accepted them, was sorry, and repented.

>How could Jesus love his weak disciples to the end?

* He love God and was in God.