John 12:1-19 Comments by Stephen Ricker
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"Your King is Coming"
Comments for Study 16

John 12:1-19
Key verse: 12:15


Passion Week Events

I. Jesus was Anointed by Mary at Bethany (1-11)

>1. When and where did this first event occur? (compare Mt. 26:6)

* "While Jesus was in Bethany in the home of a man known as Simon the Leper," -Matthew 26:6 This is the same event as in John 12:1-19.

* "Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead." -John 12:1

* Jesus had been across the Jordan. (John 11:54)

* "Six days before the Passover" -Jesus had one week to live. Each moment was important to him. What would I do if I had six days to live? Most people would do what they had not dared to or always wanted to do.

* An outline of Jesus' last week before his resurrection is as follows.
Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area.
    Friday -Jesus arrives in the Jerusalem area. (John 11:54-12:1)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -a day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38.
    Sunday -Jesus' triumphal entry. (Matt. 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-10; Luke 19:29-44; John 12:12-19)
    Monday -Jesus curses the fig tree (Matt. 21:18-19; Mark 11:12-14). Jesus clears out the Temple. (Matt 21:12-13; Mark 11:15-18)
    Tuesday -Jesus' authority questioned. (Matt. 21:23-27; Mark 11:27-33; Luke 20:18) Jesus teaches in the temple. (Matt. 21:28-22:46; Mark 12:1-44; Luke 20:9-21:4) Jesus wept over Jerusalem's leader's unbelief and rejecting him as their King. (Matthew 23:1-39) Jesus anointed at Bethany. (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 13:3-9; John 12:2-11)
    Wednesday -another day of rest; no event recorded except Luke 21:37-38. The Jews plot to kill Jesus. (Matt. 26:14-16; Mark 14:10-11; Luke 22:3-6)
    Thursday (Hebrew month Abib the 13th day) -the Passover meal begins at twilight (see below note) when Jesus and the disciples celebrate the Last Supper. (Matt. 26:17-29; Mark 14:12-25; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-18) Jesus comforts the disciples (John 14:1-16:33) Jesus prays at Gethsemane. (Matt. 26:26-46; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:40-46)
    Friday (Hebrew month Abib, 14 day) -According Hebrew time Jesus is arrest and tried from night to daylight. (Matt. 26:47-27:26; Mark 14:43-15:15; Luke 22:47-23:25; John 18:2-19:16) Jesus' crucifixion at 3:00pm, and death before sunset which is the end of the Hebrew day and Passover. (Matt. 27:27-56; Mark 15:16-41; Luke 23:26-49; John 19:17-30) Jesus is buried at sunset. (Matt. 27:57-66; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56; John 19:31-42)
    Saturday (Sabbath Abib 15, Seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread begins) Jesus' body is in the tomb. He appears in Sheol and accompanies the saints previously dead to heaven.
    Sunday (Abib 16; day of First Fruits Sheaf Wave) Jesus' morning resurrection and appearing to the women. (Mark 16:9-11; John 20:11-18) Then he appeared to the two on the road. (Mark 16:12-13; Luke 24:13-35) Then to the ten apostles (no Thomas or Judas) in the evening. (Mark 16:14; Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-25)
    Saturday (Sabbath) -Jesus appears to Thomas and the rest of the apostles. (John 20:26-31)
    A week later -Jesus talks and eats with some disciples by the Sea of Galilee. (John 21:1-25)
    Forty days since his resurrection -Jesus ascends to his Father from the Mount of Olives. (Matt. 28:15-20; Mark 18:19-20; Luke 24:44-53; Acts 1:1-11)

* The Passover is linked to the 14th day of the month not the day of the week. It starting on Thursday twilight is a very rare event; unusually it starts on a different day of the week. (Hebrew days start at sunset/twilight and go through the night till the next day's sunset.) Falling on a Thursday that year made it possible for Jesus to fulfill the meaning behind the feasts associated with the Passover. His crucifixion was on Friday (still Passover), the Sabbath (Saturday) rest was the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and Sunday was the third day since his death, the day of the First Fruit Wave Sheaf, and the day that Jesus rose from the dead. All three feasts were thus fulfilled by Jesus.

* "Where Lazarus lived" -This does not say that they went to Lazarus' house. They went to Simon the Leper's house probably because Martha's house was too small to hold the event.

>Who was at the dinner party?

* "Here a dinner was given in Jesus' honor. Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him. Then Mary..." -John 12:2-3a

* Martha, Mary, and Lazarus. Jesus restored this family after a tragedy. Each was in their usual places; Martha served, Mary sat at Jesus' feet, and Lazarus was there. "There are different kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit. There are different kinds of service, but the same Lord. There are different kinds of working, but the same God works all of them in all men." -1 Cor 12:4-6

* His disciples were also there. (4)

>How was it related to the raising of Lazarus?

* "In Jesus' honor" -The point of the meeting was to celebrate the work of God through Jesus.

* "Here a dinner was given in Jesus' honor." -There are not many dinners given in Jesus' honor. Levi seems to have given one and Zaccheus' seem almost like one. Why not? People are selfish. They like to get from Jesus, but don't think of what he wants and needs. We need to honor Jesus, his servants, and his children.

* There was a joyful atmosphere.

* Believers sharing testimony about Jesus' work and words should be held.

>Why was the time important?

* To honor Jesus.

* In six days Jesus would die as the lamb of God. (1, 13:1, 18:28, 18:39, 19:31)

>2. What did Mary do?

* "Then Mary took about a pint of pure nard, an expensive perfume; she poured it on Jesus' feet and wiped his feet with her hair. And the house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume." -John 12:3

* "pure nard" -also translated as myrrh in other places. It comes from the India Malayan mountain range. Thus it is very expensive.

* "she poured it" -all of it. She didn't give any of it away, nor did she save some for herself later. It was her most valuable possession, not only money wise but also sentimental wise. This perfume was saved for her wedding day.

* "on Jesus feet" -In Jesus' days anointing of the head (Mt. 26:7) and feet was the anointing of a king.

* "It was worth a year's wages" -in today's money this would equal US$40,000.

* To save this kind of money she would have to save her whole life.

* "Wipe his feet with her hair" -Why? She had no towel. Hair is a woman's glory (1Cor. 11:15) and feet is the lowest part of man. Thus in humility she honored Jesus.

* "filled with the fragrance of the perfume" -it probably smelled real pungent.

>Why did she do this?

* She loved Jesus because he first loved her.

* She was thankful for raising her brother from the dead. She was thankful for his words to her and her sister.

* This was an act of worship. she knew that Jesus was the Messiah, the resurrection and the life.

* The grace of Jesus moved her heart, the fruit of a resentful heart. She repented of her complaining spirit and was full of joy.

* She was happy that her brother was raised.

* Through the resurrection of her brother and Jesus' words at the grave she realized who Jesus was.

* She realized herself too

* She felt debt to Jesus.

* When she realized who Jesus was she forgot all about her no husband problem.

* What is my most valuable thing?

* Those who devout themselves to Jesus is most beautiful. Those who give themselves to Jesus are beautiful.

>Who was Judas?

* "But one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was later to betray him, objected," -John 12:4

* "One of his disciples" -He was a disciple and one of the twelve apostles. He was sent out by Jesus. He sacrificed his life to follow Jesus. He preached to others. He may have even done miracles when he was sent out. He saw all the miracles that Jesus did.

* "Iscariot" -also sword.

* "Who was later to betray him" -always will be noted as the betrayer. I should always look at my heart and ask, "Heart, are you like Judas. Yes, you do a lot and have given up some things. Yet do you love something more than Jesus?"

* Is-a-carrot. (Ha-Ha)

* Judas' selfish love of money is in contrast to Mary's selfless love of Jesus.

>What did he say?

* "Why wasn't this perfume sold and the money given to the poor? It was worth a year's wages." -John 12:5

>In what respect do his words sound reasonable?

* It seemed that the perfume was wasted to the ground.

* The poor does need money.

* Her actions seemed impractical.

>What does this writer tell us about his motives?

* "He did not say this because he cared about the poor but because he was a thief; as keeper of the money bag, he used to help himself to what was put into it." -John 12:6

* "It was worth a years wages" -he knew its value.

* Judas didn't see what Mary did; her motives or her love for Jesus.

* He saw it in the eyes of man not God; in the eyes of the law not the spirit; in the eyes of the object not to personal.

* In a way he was saying that Jesus wasn't worth it. People who see God's people say, "What a wasted life."

* He was materialistic hidden in a humanistic view point.

* People's hearts are revealed in small events, such as Judas' heart in this case. He tried to hide who he was, but he couldn't do that all the time.

* What should we do if an event exposes our weakness and faults? Come to Jesus for forgiveness and his power to overcome.

* John, the apostle, did not know of this truth about Judas until later. There are two reasons: John didn't know Judas well enough (in the eyes of God), and Judas was a good actor. Judas had masqueraded as a disciple.

* Judas' unbelieving heart and refusal to accept caused him to live a lie and lie here.

* His heart was somewhere else all along. He gradually separated, more and more, from Jesus and the disciples. Eventually he broke away.

* Jesus, knew of Judas' heart condition all along. (6:70) Yet he kept him in this position as keeper of the money. Why? Jesus did address his problem such as in 6:70 and other places. Also his teaching, "You can not serve two masters, God and money" should have helped Judas. Jesus kept Judas in this position because he wanted Judas to think about what he was saying and repent.

* We will always have people around like Judas. We can not get ride of them. (Matt. 13)

* Jesus hadn't exposed Judas, Judas eventually exposed himself.

>3. How did Jesus interpret Mary's actions?

* "Leave her alone," Jesus replied. "It was intended that she should save this perfume for the day of my burial." -John 12:7

* Eating wasn't a good time to do this, but Jesus accepted it because he had spiritual eyes.

* "Leave her alone" -he defended her and rebuked Judas.

* Jesus did not say to Judas, "I know your a thief and you have been stealing money from the treasury." Instead Jesus excepted his comment at face value. Paraphrased: "You are right about the poor, but there is something greater."

* At this time Jesus could have concentrated on Judas' evil and destructive words. In fact there was a lot of bad things going on now; his disciples lack of faith, the religious leaders and Judas. Sinners dwell on evil and the negative. But instead Jesus concentrated on Mary's great act of faith.

>What did he mean? (see Mk. 14:9)

* "I tell you the truth, wherever the gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will also be told, in memory of her." -Mark 14:9

* She would be an example of faith and love for Jesus.

* "It was intended" -God intended it. If our hearts are right we are lead by the Holy Spirit to do God's will even though we don't know it. Mary didn't know Jesus was to be buried soon. How can we be lead by the Holy Spirit? Have a right heart attitude.

* "she should save this" -God helped her save it too, even though she didn't know it.

* Jesus understands women.

>Why was the timing important?

* "for the day of my burial" -Jesus was about to die as the Lamb of God and be buried.

* Then he would be buried.

>What does Jesus teach about himself?

* "You will always have the poor with you. But you will not always have me." -John 12:8

* Jesus is worthy of worship.

>About our priorities?

* "You will always have the poor among you, but you will not always have me." -John 12:8

* "You will always have the poor among you" -Jesus did not condemn doing good works to other humans.

* "But you will not always have me" -Our priority is Jesus. He is more important than others.

* God's history is more important than human good works.

* Satan tries to divert our attention and affection off Jesus to other things such as good acts.

* Anybody can help other, but we are the only one's to do God's work in worshiping him and in saving souls.

* Judas' problem was that he didn't focus on Jesus. Jesus wasn't first in his heart.

* Mostly humanistic people are selfish in the end.

>4. See verses 9-11.

* "Meanwhile a large crowd of Jews found out that Jesus was there and came, not only because of him but also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. So the chief priests made plans to kill Lazarus as well, for on account of him many of the Jews were going over to Jesus and putting their faith in him." -John 12:9-11

>Why did such a large crowd gather and many put their faith in Jesus?

* "but also because of Lazarus" -Jesus had raised Lazarus from the dead. They wanted to see the miracle, not Jesus. They were curious seekers.

* Make a stand.

* We should expect that this will happen at times in ministry after great works of God such as Lazarus' raising the dead.

* This was mostly the same crowd that said, "Crucify him!"

>What do these verses show about the spiritual condition of the religious leaders?

* They were dark and evil.

* They were selfish.

* They were political.

* Political people -do to persevere and advance their own interests.

* Spiritual people -desire God's glory.

* After God does a great work Satan does all he can to hinder the spread of the good news.

II. The King's Entry Into Jerusalem on a Colt" (12-19)

>5. How did Jesus enter Jerusalem?

* "The next day the great crowd that had come for the Feast heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Blessed is the King of Israel!" -John 12:12-13

* Jesus is now making is greatest claim that he is the Messiah, the king of Israel and Judea to the people. Everyone knew what he was saying for kings including David rode into the capital city either on a horse (as conqueror) or a donkey (in peace).

* A donkey is like a junk car.

* The disciples were probably happy and amazed. The praise was for Jesus not them. When we are praised it is really Jesus who should be praised.

* "The great crowd" -Many types of people in the crowd.

* "heard that Jesus" -Jesus was very popular.

* The people didn't understand (16) the deeper meaning of their actions. Instead from a human point of view. It was God's work for his purpose.

>What does "Hosanna" mean?

* It's an Hebrew expression meaning "Save!" which became an exclamation of praise.

* God can use anyone to proclaim him glory, even if they don't understand.

>What Scripture did he dramatize and fulfill? (See Zech. 9:9,10)

* "Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey. I will take away the chariots from Ephraim and the war-horses from Jerusalem, and the battle bow will be broken. He will proclaim peace to the nations. His rule will extend from sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth." -Zech 9:9-10

* "Jesus found a young donkey and sat upon it, as it is written, 'Do not be afraid, O Daughter of Zion; see, your king is coming seated on a donkey's colt.'" -John 12:14-15

>What does this passage teach about the nature of Jesus' kingship and kingdom?

* He is gentle and humble.

* He is easily accessible.

* He is a shepherd-king.

* "Prince of peace."

* Jesus lived to fulfil the word of God. (John 14:10)

* Take out time to be approachable. A man of God should not make out like they are not approachable.